[68][87], In Jainism, the Saṃsāra and karma doctrine are central to its theological foundations, as evidenced by the extensive literature on it in the major sects of Jainism, and their pioneering ideas on karma and Saṃsāra from the earliest times of the Jaina tradition. Yuvraj Krishan: . [131][132] However, states Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair, there are important differences between the Saṅsāra concept in Sikhism from the Saṃsāra concept in many traditions within Hinduism. In contrast, the body and personality, can change, constantly changes, is born and dies. [19] A conceptual form from this root appears in ancient texts as Saṃsaraṇa, which means "going around through a succession of states, birth, rebirth of living beings and the world", without obstruction. [97][98] As the soul cycles, states Padmanabh Jaini, Jainism traditions believe that it goes through five types of bodies: earth bodies, water bodies, fire bodies, air bodies and vegetable lives. However, Saṃsāra or the cycle of rebirths, has a definite beginning and end in Jainism. These 16 samskaras to be performed by or for an individual beginning with conception and continuing up to the last rites performed after death. [9][21][22] While the idea is mentioned in the Samhita layers of the Vedas, there is lack of clear exposition there, and the idea fully develops in the early Upanishads. 23, Issue 2, pages 95-105. [65][84][85], The dualistic devotional traditions such as Madhvacharya's Dvaita Vedanta tradition of Hinduism champion a theistic premise, assert the individual human soul and Brahman (Vishnu, Krishna) are two different realities, loving devotion to Vishnu is the means to release from Samsara, it is the grace of Vishnu which leads to moksha, and spiritual liberation is achievable only in after-life (videhamukti). Samsara exists in many religions like Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, Vaishnavism, and other related religions. [93] Some evolve to a higher state, while some regress, a movement that is driven by karma. [119] The Four Noble Truths, accepted by all Buddhist traditions, are aimed at ending this Samsara-related re-becoming (rebirth) and associated cycles of suffering. [18] Current karma impacts the future circumstances in this life, as well as the future forms and realms of lives. In Buddhism, samsara is often defined as the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. [116][117][118], Samsara is considered impermanent in Buddhism, just like other Indian religions. [9][10] The full exposition of the Saṃsāra doctrine is found in Sramanic religions such as Buddhism and Jainism, as well as various schools of Hindu philosophy after about the mid-1st millennium BC. [25] The word Saṃsāra appears, along with Moksha, in several Principal Upanishads such as in verse 1.3.7 of the Katha Upanishad,[26] verse 6.16 of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad,[27] verses 1.4 and 6.34 of the Maitri Upanishad. [127][128] However, the Buddhist texts developed a more comprehensive theory of rebirth, states Steven Collins, from fears of redeath, called amata (death-free), a state which is considered synonymous with nirvana. 1 (Jan., 1985), pages 61-71, Norman E. Thomas (April 1988), Liberation for Life: A Hindu Liberation Philosophy, Missiology, Volume 16, Number 2, pp 149-160. [92][113] The Abhavya state of soul is entered after an intentional and shockingly evil act. [40][41][42] The evidence for who influenced whom in the ancient times, is slim and speculative, and the odds are the historic development of the Samsara theories likely happened in parallel with mutual influences. [20][44][45] These early theories asserted that the nature of human existence involves two realities, one unchanging absolute Atman (soul) which is somehow connected to the ultimate unchanging immortal reality and bliss called Brahman,[46][47] and that the rest is the always-changing subject (body) in a phenomenal world (Maya). Paul Williams, Anthony Tribe & Alexander Wynne 2012, Robert Buswell Jr. & Donald Lopez Jr. 2013, The difference between Samsara and Nirvana, Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Saṃsāra&oldid=988046176, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 November 2020, at 18:53. [88][89] Saṃsāra in Jainism represents the worldly life characterized by continuous rebirths and suffering in various realms of existence. Or, you may understand it as the world of suffering and dissatisfaction (dukkha), the opposite of nirvana, which is the condition of being free from suffering and the cycle of rebirth. [116][123], The Saṃsāra concept, in Buddhism, envisions that these six realms are interconnected, and everyone cycles life after life, and death is just a state for an afterlife, through these realms, because of a combination of ignorance, desires and purposeful karma, or ethical and unethical actions.