Here is, for example, the Indo-European word for "wolf" in various languages: The elements separated with hyphens denote the stem, the so-called thematic vowel of the case and the actual suffix. Historically, the vocative case was an element of the Indo-European case system and existed in Latin, Sanskrit and Classical Greek. In English translations, it is often translated literally as O instead of being omitted. (Oh god, please forgive them. Historically, and in poetic or rhetorical speech, vocative phrases in English were prefaced by the word O, as is often seen in the King James Version of the Bible: "O ye of little faith" (in Matthew 8:26). The symbol ◌̩ (vertical line below) indicates a consonant serving as a vowel (it should appear directly below the "l" or "r" in these examples but may appear after them on some systems from issues of font display). Σωκράτης, voc. (Bože, vocative of "Бог" Bog, "God") and "Боже мой!" (Mijina, jibe ga?) (square); "tauta": "tauta!". Proper nouns usually also have vocative forms, but they are used less frequently. Many modern Indo-European languages (English, Spanish, etc.) In the singular there is no special form, except for first declension nouns. Kurdish has a vocative case. With the advent of "oh" as a written interjection, however, "O" is the preferred modern spelling in vocative phrases. That is also the case in traditional English (without the accent) (see above): The native words sonur ("son") and vinur ("friend") also sometimes appear in the shortened forms son and vin in vocative phrases. The plural form is used with words such as "ребят", "девчат" (nom: "ребята", "девчата" guys, gals).. instead of pane Nováku! The vocative case in Irish operates in a similar fashion to Scottish Gaelic. Using the vocative is strongly recommended in official and written styles. It expresses feeling in most of its occurrences. Thus, the determiner precedes nouns in all cases except the vocative. Another example is the recurrent use of the phrase "O (my) Best Beloved" by Rudyard Kipling in his Just So Stories. Nouns that end in -ius end with -ī instead of the expected -ie. It is most often used to address someone or some group of living beings, usually in conjunction with an imperative construct. and in case of male nouns past a title ("pane učitel! ("I love you, Chris!") Thus, a quotation of William S. Clark would be translated as follows: 소년이여, 야망을 가져라. (What is Dongbae doing? The name "Voirrey" is actually the Manx vocative of "Moirrey" (Mary). "kid; young one"), resulting in xiǎozei "Hey kiddo!". Neuter nouns and all plural nouns have the same form in the nominative and the vocative: The latter form of the vocative of człowiek (human) is now considered poetical. (Bože moj, "My God! , In some German dialects, like the Ripuarian dialect of Cologne, it is common to use the (gender-appropriate) article before a person's name. If a masculine and feminine stem ends in a CONSONANT other than –ν, –ρ or –ς, the STEM DROPS its final consonants until the word reaches an allowable final sound. More-recent names and foreign names may have a vocative form but it is rarely used (Ричарде, instead of simply Ричард Richard, sounds unusual to native speakers). The basic pattern is similar to Irish and Scottish. :527, 529, Nouns tȅtka, ûjna and strîna have vocative equal to nominative when referring to a family member, and the suffix -o in vocative otherwise. Vocative Case The case of direct address. 1st DECLENSION MASCULINE nouns also usually use just their stem. These are masculine nouns that end in a broad (non-palatal) consonant, which is made slender (palatal) to build the singular vocative (as well as the singular genitive and plural nominative). Replacing –ος with –ε for 2nd declension. There have been several changes in history, the last being the -ai ending formed between the 18th and 19th centuries. The vocative case causes lenition of the initial consonant of names. Meus forms the vocative irregularly as mī or meus, while Christian Deus does not have a distinct vocative and retains the form Deus. In several Norwegian dialects, proper nouns referring to persons are commonly preceded by a personal pronoun he (han/hainn/‘n) or she (hun/hu/ho/‘a) in nominative, but not in vocative. and tkve, without the -n. Therefore, one could, for instance, say, with the declension of all of the elements: The vocative case in Korean is commonly used with first names in casual situations by using the vocative case marker(호격 조사) 아 (a) if the name ends in a consonant and 야 (ya) if the name ends with a vowel:, 미진이 집에 가? In the spoken dialects the vocative plural is often has the same form as the nominative plural (as with the nouns of other declensions) or the dative plural (e.g. In these cases, what are the three possible ways that these nouns form their singular vocative? (Mijin, are you going home? An another example is the word καπετάνιος: vocative case καπετάνιε/ καπετάνιο. It is most commonly applied to the word 孙子 (sūnzi, "grandson"), to form sūnzei, meaning approximately "Hey you nasty one!". That comes from Latin, as the Latin for Jesus in the nominative is Jesus and its vocative is Jesu. Vocative phrases like господин министре (Mr. Minister) have been almost completely replaced by nominative forms, especially in official writing. And the horses are running away. (Boys, be ambitious.). Likewise, the name "Vairi" is an English spelling of "Mhàiri," the vocative for Màiri.